Orthopedics

Orthopedic Conditions

The word orthopedic comes from two Greek words:

  • Ortho meaning straight

  • Paedia meaning children

Orthopedic surgery is the branch of medicine concerned with diseases, injuries, and conditions of the musculoskeletal system relating to the body's muscles and skeleton, and including the joints, ligaments, tendons, and nerves.

 

 

Hip Surgery


Who is affected by a hip fracture?

About 90 percent of hip fractures happen to people over age 60. The incidence of hip fractures increases with age, doubling for each decade after age 50. Caucasians and Asians are more likely to be affected than others primarily because of a higher rate of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis (loss of bone tissue) is a disease that weakens bones.

Women are more prone to osteoporosis than men; therefore, hip fracture is more common among women. They experience about 80 percent of all hip fractures. More than 1.5 million Americans have fractures annually because of osteoporosis.

The number of hip fractures in the US is the highest in the world with approximately 300,000 occurrences each year. In 2003, there were about 309,500 hospitalizations for hip fractures. It is estimated that the number could exceed 500,000 by the year 2040.

Why is a hip fracture so serious?

People who sustain a hip fracture are more likely to die than a person of the same age who does not experience this injury. About 20 percent of people who have a hip fracture die within a year of their injury. It is estimated that only one in four persons have a total recovery from a hip fracture.

Most people spend from one to two weeks in the hospital after a hip fracture. The recovery period may be lengthy, and may include admission to a rehabilitation facility. People who previously were able to live independently will generally need help from home caregivers, family, or may require the services of a long-term care facility. Hip fractures can result in a loss of independence, reduced quality of life, and depression, especially in older people.

 

 

Knee Surgery


The knee is a vulnerable joint that bears a great deal of stress from everyday activities, such as lifting and kneeling, and from high-impact activities such as jogging and aerobics.

The knee is formed by the following parts:

  • Tibia. This is the shin bone or larger bone of the lower leg.

  • Femur. This is the thighbone or upper leg bone.

  • Patella. This is the kneecap.

Each bone end is covered with a layer of cartilage that absorbs shock and protects the knee. Basically, the knee is two long leg bones held together by muscles, ligaments, and tendons.

There are two groups of muscles involved in the knee, including the quadriceps muscles (located on the front of the thighs), which straighten the legs, and the hamstring muscles (located on the back of the thighs), which bend the leg at the knee.

Tendons are tough cords of tissue that connect muscles to bones. Ligaments are elastic bands of tissue that connect bone to bone. Some ligaments on the knee provide stability and protection of the joints, while other ligaments limit forward and backward movement of the tibia (shin bone).

 

 

Sports Medicine


Sports injuries are common daily occurrences in the US. Most sports injuries are due to either traumatic injury or overuse of muscles or joints. Many sports injuries can be prevented with proper conditioning and training, wearing appropriate protective gear, and using proper equipment.

Sports and soft-tissue injuries

Most sports injuries are due to minor trauma involving soft-tissue injuries - injuries that affect the muscles, ligaments, and/or tendons, including the following:

  • Contusions (bruises)

  • Sprains

  • Tendonitis

  • Bursitis

  • Stress injuries

  • Strains

What is a contusion?

A contusion (bruise) is an injury to the soft tissue often produced by a blunt force such as a kick, fall, or blow. The result will be pain, swelling, and discoloration. Treatment for contusions includes Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation (R.I.C.E.). More serious contusions may need to be examined by a physician.

What is a sprain?

A sprain is an injury to a ligament and is often caused by a wrench or twist. Sprains often affect the ankles, knees, or wrists. The treatment for a sprain includes Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation (R.I.C.E.). If the ligament is torn, surgical repair may be necessary.

What is a strain?

A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon, and is often caused by overuse, force, or stretching. The treatment for a strain is Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation (R.I.C.E). If a tear in the muscle occurs, surgical repair may be necessary.